精品粮票赏析

精品粮票赏析

粮票作为国家法定的票证,正式通行全国,始于1955年11月份。但类似粮票的购粮证券却由来已久,据考证最早出现“粮票”字的票证是清朝乾隆32年(公元1767年)潼川府发行的“收粮票”。以后,太平天国时期曾发行过“天朝粮票”,孙中山领导的同盟会也使用过“粮券”。在中国共产党领导的土地大革命时期,1931年,苏维埃政府粮食委员会,专门印刷了借谷证,1934年,中华苏维埃共和国中央政府发行过“米票”。民国时期,虽然没有直接发行粮票,但也发行过有关粮食的证券,如民国三十年(1941年),由国民政府财政部、粮食部联合发行了“粮食库券”,即一种提前征粮的凭证,并有财政部长孔祥熙、粮食部长徐湛的签章。

1949年10月,新中国建立之后,国家尚无统一制定发行粮票的政策,但华东、华北、西南、西北、中南等几个大行政区及部分地方政府,根据中央提出的“历行节约,计划用粮”的精神,在本行政范围内对军政干部、政府工作人员发行粮票,有的是以粮食计价,以粮票计工资。这个时期,各行政区的粮票设计严谨,票幅较大,票面构图与第一版人民币相似,并有编号。1953年,中央政府颁布了《关于粮食的计划收购和计划供应》的命令,开始实行统购统销.1954年,有些市、县开始试用粮票,1955年8月25日国务院颁布《关于市镇粮食定量供应暂行办法》,同年11月,国家粮食部和各地省人民政府正式发行粮票,从此,全国实行粮票购粮制。

1955年粮食部印发的票面额有半市斤、壹市斤、叁市斤、伍市斤,地方粮票只限于省属区域使用,其票面额分壹市两、贰市两、伍市两、壹市斤、贰市斤、伍市斤、拾市斤,全国及地方粮票均以成品粮计算。在粮票正式发行之初,采用十六两制计量。1959年,国家计量改为十两制,粮票的面额也一律采用十两制计量,十两制一直沿用到1985年。1986年至1992年,是粮票实行公斤制时期,同时与千克制并存。1992年,由于国家粮食提价后,每斤粮票的市场价值不过2分钱,粮票不怕伪造,因此印制趋向简单化,粮票的发行使用也进入尾声,1993年作为“中国第一票证”的粮票随着粮价放开而自行结束。

粮票,本是一种购粮凭证,但粮票上的名称却不尽相同,尤其到了70年代以后,粮票名称更是五花八门,加上各种性质的购粮票证不断出现,使得粮票的名称更加复杂化。姚高悟编著的《粮票收藏与鉴赏》一书统计,全国各地粮票有票、券、证、卡四大类,约90多种,且大同小异者不再其内,仅票类就有52种。1955年开始发行的粮票,按行政级别划分,可分全国粮票、省级粮票、地市粮票、县级粮票和区镇粮票。按实用性质划分,可分常用粮票、农用粮票、工种粮票、军用粮票和侨汇粮票。粮票购粮制实行近40年来,全国21个省、5个自治区、3个直辖市以及2000多个县发行了粮票,其范围之广,时间之长,影响之大,堪称世界之最。

As a national legal ticket, food stamps were officially passed throughout the country since November 1955. However, grain purchase securities similar to grain coupons have a long history. According to research, the earliest ticket with the word "grain coupon" was the "grain receipt ticket" issued by Tongchuan government in the 32nd year of Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (AD 1767). Later, during the period of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the "food coupons of the Chinese dynasty" were issued, and the "food coupons" were also used by the alliance led by Sun Yat Sen. During the agrarian revolution led by the Communist Party of China, in 1931, the grain Committee of the Soviet government specially printed grain borrowing certificates. In 1934, the central government of the Soviet Republic of China issued "rice tickets". During the period of the Republic of China, although food stamps were not directly issued, securities related to food were also issued. For example, in the thirtieth year of the Republic of China (1941), the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of food of the National Government jointly issued "food Treasury coupons", which is a voucher for early grain collection, and signed by finance minister Kong Xiangxi and Food Minister Xu Zhan.

In October 1949, after the founding of new China, the state did not formulate a unified policy for issuing food stamps, but several major administrative regions and some local governments in East China, North China, southwest, northwest and Central South China issued food stamps to military and government cadres and government staff within their own administrative scope in accordance with the spirit of "historical economy and planned grain consumption" put forward by the central government. Some were priced in grain and paid in grain stamps. During this period, the food stamps of various administrative regions were designed rigorously, with large ticket widths, and the face composition was similar to the first version of RMB and numbered. In 1953, the central government issued the order on the planned purchase and supply of grain, and began to implement the unified purchase and marketing. In 1954, some cities and counties began to try out grain coupons. On August 25, 1955, the State Council promulgated the Interim Measures on the quantitative supply of grain in cities and towns. In November of the same year, the Ministry of grain and the provincial people's governments officially issued grain coupons. Since then, the grain coupon purchase system has been implemented throughout the country.

The denominations of the tickets issued by the Ministry of grain in 1955 are half a catty, one catty, three catties and five catties. The local food tickets are only used in provincial areas. The denominations are divided into one city, two cities, five cities, one catty, two catties, five catties and ten catties. The national and local food tickets are calculated based on finished grain. At the beginning of the official issuance of food stamps, the 16 Liang system was adopted for measurement. In 1959, the national measurement was changed to the ten Liang system, and the denomination of food stamps was also measured by the ten Liang system, which was used until 1985. From 1986 to 1992, the kilogram system of food stamps was implemented, and it coexisted with the kilogram system. In 1992, since the market value of food stamps per kilogram was only 2 cents after the national food price increase, and the food stamps were not afraid of forgery, the printing tended to be simplified, and the issuance and use of food stamps came to an end. In 1993, the food stamps, as "China's first ticket", ended with the liberalization of food prices.

The grain ticket was originally a kind of grain purchase voucher, but the names on the grain ticket were different. Especially after the 1970s, the names of the grain ticket were diverse. In addition, the continuous emergence of various kinds of grain purchase tickets made the name of the grain ticket more complicated. According to the statistics in the book "collection and appreciation of food stamps" compiled by Yao gaowu, there are about 90 kinds of food stamps in four categories: tickets, coupons, certificates and cards all over the country, and the similar ones are no longer included, and there are 52 kinds of tickets alone. According to the administrative level, the food stamps issued in 1955 can be divided into national food stamps, provincial food stamps, prefecture and city food stamps, county food stamps and district and town food stamps. According to the practical nature, it can be divided into common food stamps, agricultural food stamps, type of work food stamps, military food stamps and overseas Chinese remittance food stamps. In the past 40 years since the implementation of the grain purchase system, 21 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 3 municipalities directly under the central government and more than 2000 counties have issued food stamps. With its wide scope, long time and great influence, it can be called the most in the world.

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